There are several ways to assess writing. The most common method is to use some sort of rubric. Items on the rubric range from state-mandated writing standards to individual items specific to an assignment. Other forms of writing assessment use checklists or rating scales.
SEDL Reading Resources When RTI is implemented with fidelity in the early grades, the anticipated outcome is that students who are struggling readers will be identified early and provided intervention.
Even with an effective RTI process in place in Grades K—3, however, there will continue to be students in the later grades who require intervention to support their reading development.
For schools, this means that a system for screening to identify struggling readers needs to continue beyond the early elementary grades into the middle and high school grades. This article provides information about measures that can be used to identify students at risk for reading problems in Grades 4— Before reviewing these measures, however, it is important to first consider the nature of reading instruction at the secondary level and the characteristics of students who struggle with reading.
Reading Instruction at Grades 4—12 The conceptual framework underlying RTI stems from the preventive sciences approach. RTI is a tiered model of service delivery in which all students are provided with effective, evidence-based practices to support their reading development in Tier 1.
Historically, once students move into the higher grades, formal reading instruction ceases and reading becomes the means by which students learn content.
In recent years, though, reading accountability measures that span the grade levels have placed a new emphasis on continued literacy instruction in the middle and high school grades. For an RTI model to be effective in leading to improved student outcomes, the Tier 1 program in Grades 4—12 must include evidence-based practices that support literacy development for adolescent readers.
The development of a strong Tier 1 literacy program is an important first step for secondary schools implementing RTI.
Although it is beyond the scope of this article to present a comprehensive plan for improving Tier 1 reading instruction, a synopsis of best practices is provided below. Reading and writing skills are critical to student success across the curriculum, and they need to be an integral focus to "form a supportive web of related learning" Langer,p.
Schools that have integrated the explicit instruction of reading and writing across the content areas support student achievement across the curriculum National Association of State Boards of Education, In general, research has supported the following main ideas for developing literacy with older students: Additionally, when schools use consistent literacy frameworks across the content areas, students can more easily focus on comprehension and content knowledge—using reading and writing as vehicles to support their learning Langer, Even with a solid instructional core in place, there will be students who struggle with reading.
To develop and implement effective Tier 2 interventionsa system for identifying these students is critical. What are the characteristics of students who struggle with reading in the later grades?
Though every individual student may have differences in their reading profiles, struggling readers in Grades 4—12 will, in general, fall into one of the following categories: Late-Emergent Reading Disabled Students: These are students who were able to keep up with early reading demands but for whom later demands became too great.
Although there has been a strong emphasis on improving reading instruction in the early grades, not all schools have strong reading programs in place. There will continue to be students who have not been the recipients of strong reading instruction in the early grades who will require supports in the later grades Vaughn et al.
All schools will need to provide instruction and intervention to meet the needs of a growing ELL population. Students Requiring Ongoing Intervention:The Parent as Expert "Success comes before work only in the dictionary."Anon.
The third section of Wrightslaw: From Emotions to Advocacy is The Parent as Expert. As a parent, you negotiate with the school on your child’s behalf. To negotiate, you need information about. Graphic Organizer.
A graphic organizer is a visual display that demonstrates relationships between facts, concepts or ideas. A graphic organizer guides the learner’s thinking as they fill .
Chapter 7 - Portfolio Assessment What is a Portfolio? A portfolio is a purposeful collection of selective significant samples of student work accompanied by clear criteria for performance. The Test Coordinator Handbook (pdf) contains snapshots of each assessment in the Rhode Island Statewide Assessment Program.
It includes dates, contact information, and other important details about each assessment being administered in Rhode Island during the school year. Additionally, when schools use consistent literacy frameworks across the content areas, students can more easily focus on comprehension and content knowledge—using reading and writing as vehicles to support their learning (Langer, ).
Instructional Job Aid | Developing Checklists and Rating Scales Page 4 Checklist example 2: Learning outcomes assessment Expected learning outcome: The student will write learning outcomes that have a measurable action verb at the highest appropriate level given a “verb-level” list.