The objective of this essay is to provide a brief overview of the history of adult attachment research, the key theoretical ideas, and a sampling of some of the research findings. This essay has been written for people who are interested in learning more about research on adult attachment. Bowlby observed that separated infants would go to extraordinary lengths e. Drawing on ethological theory, Bowlby postulated that these attachment behaviors, such as crying and searching, were adaptive responses to separation from a primary attachment figure--someone who provides support, protection, and care.
Secure attachment or insecure attachment? So far, so good To a Large Degree Attachment theory research and many other studies in the developmental psychology of children have shown that our very first close relationship with - or attachment to - our primary caregiver typically our mother the first two years of our lives shapes how we: Of course, other factors also have a great say: That is quite remarkable considering that as orphans they probably had little or no opportunity to form this important early attachment.
Insecure and secure attachment refer to specific attachment behavior patterns that the infant shows, typically when being under some form of stress.
In this experiment she put a mother and her toddler in an unfamiliar playroom along with a female stranger. Then the mother was to leave the room, leaving the child alone with the stranger. After a few minutes the mother would return and reunite with her child.
These Attachment behaviors allowed Mary Ainsworth to observe separation and reunion behavior which would demonstrate whether a toddler was securely attached or displayed one of three attachment styles characterized by insecurity: He or she will feel secure to explore the world, and consequently develop skills and feel the mastery of them, which builds self esteem etc.
The goal of attachment parenting and positive parenting is in fact to create secure attachment between mother or primary caregiver and child.
A happy child has a high chance of a happy childhood and later, a happy life. The scientifically documented effects of good, early secure attachment are: Basic trust o The child has learnt that his or her needs will be met.
Therefore they will expect help to be available and will therefore more easily reach out for it. Intimacy, trust and positive expectations are second nature. Good coping strategies and skills o A combination of hope, a positive outlook on life and good self esteem along with the ability to reach out for help and expect support, help securely attached children to cope better and faster with emotional challenges, stress and trauma.
They are good at adapting to new situations and controlling their impulses and emotions.
However, studies reveal that there are some developmental patterns that seem to be typical of insecurely attached children: Emotional detachment o As an infant, the child has learnt that attachment behavior — or emotional expressions such as crying — is no good. It has no positive effect!
So the child may not have developed much emotional awareness and may have a tendency to hide his or her feelings and not express negative emotions. Lack of trust o As a defence mechanism, an avoidant child will tend to not reach out for help because of his or her belief that no one will respond constructively.
Having a hard time controlling behavior and emotions o Compared with securely attached children, children with ambivalent insecure attachment tend to be less enthusiastic in their endeavours and experience and express more frustration and anger.
The category of disorganized insecure attachment in infancy is still quite new and is still being studied further to learn more about it. One thing that researchers found was that when compared with the other two attachment categories the insecure oneschildren with disorganized attachment concerns are at more risk of developing aggressive behavior problems, which might already surface at the age of about five.
Please note that the above attachment styles and their outcome show the general picture, which means that individual exceptions are not included.Attachment is characterized by specific behaviors in children, such as seeking proximity to the attachment figure when upset or threatened (Bowlby, ).
Attachment behavior in adults towards the child includes responding sensitively and appropriately to the child’s needs.
Attachment and behavior From a behavioral perspective, attachment is represented by a group of instinctive infant behaviors that serve to form the attachment bond, protect the child from fear and harm, and aid in the infant's protected exploration of the world. These behaviors include.
Nov 19, · A close attachment after birth and beyond allows the natural, biological attachment-promoting behaviors of the infant and the intuitive, biological, caregiving qualities of .
The attachment behavior system is an important concept in attachment theory because it provides the conceptual linkage between ethological models of human development and modern theories on emotion regulation and personality. The attachment behavior system is an important concept in attachment theory because it provides the conceptual linkage between ethological models of human development and modern theories on emotion regulation and personality.
1. behavior associated implicated in the formation of significant relationships, for example, symbiosis with the mother. 2. also refers to the infant gaining proximity to or contact with his or her caregiver by responding differentially to them. Its manifestations include crying, smiling, calling, gazing, and clinging.