Her stories have frequently appeared in the New Yorker, and her work is routinely anthologized in a wide variety of textbooks. Through her matrilineal line, she is an enrolled member in the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, and her grandfather, Patrick Gourneau, was tribal chairman in the s. She was encouraged by her parents from an early age to write and was nurtured on stories. With her admission to Dartmouth College inher talent began to mature.
In the mid-seventeenth century there were approximately 35, Ojibwa on the continent. According to the census, the Ojibwa were the third-largest Native group with a population of, after the Cherokeeand the NavajoOthers have petitioned for federal recognition. While Ojibwa reserves are also found in Ontario and Saskatchewan, this account stresses their history in the United States.
The Anishinabe acquired the names Ojibwa and Chippewa from French traders. The English preferred to use Chippewa or Chippeway, names typically employed on the treaties with the British government and later with the U.
InInez Hilger noted that more than 70 different names were used for Ojibwa in written accounts M. Minnesota Historical Society Press, ], p. There are several explanations for the derivation of the word "Ojibwa.
Others say that the French used the word o-jib-i-weg or "pictograph" because the Anishinabe employed a written language based on pictures or symbols. There is no standard spelling in English, and variations include: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa and Chippeway.
Chippewa is the form used by many tribal organizations recognized by the United States. Ojibwa has become the common English language reference for encyclopedias and entries on this group of peoples. As previously noted, the people call themselves Anishinabe. This name, as with other names chosen by the peoples in question, is the preferred term.
About they migrated westward, guided by a vision of a floating seashell referred to as the sacred miigis. At the Straits of Mackinac, the channel of water connecting Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, the vision ended, and the Anishinabe divided into three groups.
A second group, the Ottawa, moved north of Lake Huron. A third group, the Ojibwa, settled along the eastern shore of Lake Superior. Because of this early association, the Potawatomi, the Ottawa, and the Ojibwa are known collectively as the Three Fires.
The first written European accounts about the Ojibwa appeared in Jesuit diaries, published in collected form as the Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. The Jesuits were followed by French explorers and fur traders, who were succeeded by British fur traders, explorers, and soldiers and later by U.
Fur trading, especially the exchange of beaver pelts for goods including firearms, flourished until the s. The Ojibwa traded with representatives of fur companies or indirectly through salaried or independent traders called coureurs des bois.
In addition to furs, the land around the Great Lakes was rich in copper and iron ore, lumber, and waterpower, all natural resources that were coveted by non-Native Americans. Competition in trading led to intertribal conflict. By the s the Ojibwa, aided with guns, had succeeded in pushing the Fox south into Wisconsin.
Ojibwa and Sioux fighting extended over a year period until separate reservations were established. By the mid-nineteenth century the Ojibwa had enlarged their geographic boundaries and had splintered into four main groups.
The Southwestern Ojibwa lived along the south and north shores of Lake Superior. The Northern Ojibwa lived in northern Ontario.
The Plains Ojibwa adopted a lifestyle that resembled that of other Plains tribes, living in tepees, riding horses, and relying on buffalo for food and clothing. While the Ojibwa did not engage in extended armed conflict with Europeans, the relationship was not always amicable.
To the missionaries the Ojibwa were heathens to be converted to Christianity.
To the fur traders they were commodities who could be purchased and indentured to company stores through watered-down alcohol and cheaply made goods. To the settlers they were wastrels who did not force the land to release its bounty.
To ethnologists the Ojibwa were objects of study. To the government they were impressionable and recalcitrant wards. While there are many people who now value the Ojibwa culture, there are still others who regard the Ojibwa with disinterest or disdain, indicating that long-held stereotypes persist.
KEY ISSUES Key issues facing the Ojibwa include economic development to reduce unemployment, the defense of the wild rice industry from commercial growers, improved medical treatment to combat illnesses such as diabetes and alcoholism, better management of natural resources, protection of treaty rights and attainment of sovereignty, and increased emphasis on higher education to train specialists and renew cultural ties.The Beet Queen is one of Erdrich's finest novels.
Fans of Erdrich's will recognize some of the characters that appeared in the earlier Love Medicine and in her later books, but you don't need to be familiar with the author's work to become engrossed in this one.
Even readers won over by Louise Erdrich's two earlier works (Love Medicine and The Beet queen may be surprised by her third novel.
Tracks is a stunning and powerful book; it /5. The Beet Queen confirmed my observation that, in some respects, Louise Erdrich is the "Flannery O'Connor" of Native American literature.
Flannery O'Connor's "Gothic" Southern characters and settings revealed life's often dark and grotesque underbelly/5.
AP® ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION Visit the College Board on the Web: grupobittia.comeboard. org. Question 2 (Louise Erdrich, The Beet Queen) The score should reflect the quality of the essay as a whole — its content, style, and mechanics.
ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION SCORING COMMENTARY. This one-page guide includes a plot summary and brief analysis of The Beet Queen by Louise Erdrich. The Beet Queen is a novel by Louise Erdrich.
Erdrich is an American author who is known for novels, poems, and children’s books commonly featuring Native American characters and settings.
Louise Erdrich is a member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians and her works often feature characters and settings of Native American heritage and significance. Some of her most well-known works include Love Medicine, Tracks, The Beet Queen, The Bingo Palace, and The Round House.